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Building a WordPress framework

While my posting frequency has been decreasing as of late due to the search (and securing) of a job, working out the details for my impending move to San Francisco, and, rather covertly, working on the design and development of version 8, due to launch at the end of next month. I’ve nailed down its general look and feel in Photoshop, and the actual graphic part of the design is all but done.

After I was done working in Photoshop, I started to write the actual markup for version 8 (theme named “Nightingale”) when I ended up hitting a bit of an impasse. Aerial, the current theme, was built with semantics in mind (such that I could simply swap out Aerial’s CSS for other ones, minimising design time,) and while Aerial worked to some effect, the underlying document architecture was still in some ways restrictive. Aerial’s development taught me a lot about the semantics of the Web, but a simple CSS facelift wasn’t going to help me build some of the insane functionality I wanted into Nightingale.

What is it, then, that Nightingale needed that Aerial didn’t have? A lot of things, really. Aerial was built back before Valerio Proietti’s awesome mootools was released to the public, and thus uses the older (and deprecated) moo.fx libraries + moo.ajax. Aerial, in a bit of a rush to get out the door, missed its intended livesearch and Mint interfacing functionalities, and building them into the Aerial codebase seemed much like an architectural afterthought. Even so, I wanted to build some interface changes into the way comments are displayed and numbered, support some standard microformats, and, of course, work with the most valid code possible. While it’s certainly possible to build such things into Aerial’s own codebase, the end result would have been pretty hackworthy.

As I explained in Aerial’s own unveiling, Aerial was built upon a strict grid system with a highly modular, class-based grid design pattern. That said, I’ve improved as a developer since the release of Aerial, and its ignorance of multiple class attributes and rather amateur pattern design seem slightly under-par for the professional development that this blog both tries to be an example of and write about. When I began to start rebuilding my design patterns to a more semantic, more universal degree, I realised that Nightingale was essentially a better version of what I had tried to do with Aerial, and what I had inadvertently done with Aerial is start to build a general design framework to work on top of the WordPress engine, some type of primitive K2. What I eventually realised that Nightingale would need, both for its current revision as well as future site design versions, was a full-scale, user-friendly framework that offered both the UI easiness of K2 as well as the developer-centric semantics of Sandbox. With that thought process, Nightingale went from a simple redesign to an entire rearchitecture of the WordPress frontend, adding custom presentation options that would allow for fast switching of actual designs, powerful JavaScript effects, and a pretty awesome AJAX engine that would handle the UI complexities of dealing with browser history while degrading nicely all the way down to the handheld.

Introducing Fuselage

With that process, I began my work on Fuselage, a fully-functional WordPress framework, a sort of mootools for WordPress developers. Fuselage is both a developer’s framework as well as a user’s framework, with a backend for options to work with the default markup as well as a full codebase of CSS classes, standardised microformats, and custom template tags to do the things that WordPress doesn’t on its own. While Fuselage won’t be released until version 8 (Nightingale) itself is, I thought it might be worthwhile to leak a bit of information on the framework’s current feature set and how it will work in the end.

For a developer to implement the Fuselage framework for their own themes, all they need to do is add the proper Fuselage JavaScript and CSS files to their directories. The Fuselage JavaScript and CSS offer a barebones system to developing WordPress themes with extremely advanced features. Some features Fuselage will include upon release are:

  • XHTML 1.1 Semantic Validity Fuselage will be built to the XHTML 1.1 specification, with automatic backward DOCTYPE compatibility to XHTML 1.0 Transitional for older posts (or XHTML 1.0 Transitional can simply be forced from the Fuselage backend.) Fuselage will automatically handle content negotiation to serve XHTML 1.1 pages as application/xhtml+xml to browsers that can handle true XHTML properly.
  • A true grid-based design pattern At the core of every site I’ve made over the past year and a half is a strict grid structure. Fuselage offers a full grid-based CSS framework, allowing a developer to specify features for XHTML markup by using a core class framework. Set your column widths to what you’re looking for in fuselage.struct.css, and then all you have to do is define column widths in your markup. Want a structural div that spans four columns? Simply class it structCol4 and Fuselage will automatically format the div properly. This offers extreme amounts of flexibility to grid-based web designers.
  • Standard UI controls Fuselage will offer simple, preset styles for common blog UI elements, from comment and search forms to social bookmarking tool widgets. For greater UI support, Fuselage offers a true breadcrumb navigation engine to help a user retrace their steps to a parent page. Fuselage will also maintain a proper browser history in Mozilla and IE when AJAX is in use by using the RSH library.
  • Simple UI Effects Fuselage maintains simple UI effects using the mootools library and defined colours. Want to fade in or fade out an element? Simply class it uiFadeIn or uiFadeOut.
  • Built-in AJAX Livesearch and Commenting Theme developers using Fuselage can build in AJAX commenting simply by creating one div, classed structAjaxContainer, within the comment list. Livesearch will function much in the way that K2′s livesearch does.
  • Support for Common Formats To increase compatibility with standards, Fuselage’s default code will work with WordPress widgets and maintain built-in template tags for generating standardised Microformats such as hCard. Fuselage also maintains formats and template tags for downloads, inline video, and more (including Chris Messina’s figure alignment pattern).
  • Built-in sIFR 3 Support sIFR 3 Beta will be worked directly into Fuselage, with standard classes for implementing sIFR (want to turn sIFR on? Simply class an item typoSIFR.) Fuselage’s default sIFR replacement JavaScript can be overridden by user-made stylesheets or sIFR, as well as any other function in this list, can be disabled from an admin panel.
  • Quick JavaScript methods Using the rel attribute, Fuselage allows for use of JavaScript tools such as opening in new windows or the use of the Litebox image display system, included with Fuselage (and, of course, an option easily disabled in the backend to save overhead.)
  • Drop-in styles Much like K2, a user unfamiliar with code can drop a style package directly on top of Fuselage to make something out of it. Styles in Fuselage allow for both CSS and JavaScript functions. (Of course, you can always take the Fuselage framework and build your own true theme on top of it.)
  • Degradeable. Really. Fuselage will function normally without JavaScript or other such fun things, acting entirely as a normal WordPress theme would.

Monocoque: The most awesome thing about Fuselage

My favourite feature of Fuselage is Monocoque, the feature that allows the base Fuselage theme to work entirely in AJAX mode, creating what is essentially a one-page theme in browsers that support the full methods of AJAX and necessary browser UI handling. This effectively deals away with a refresh, while using the best methods available to maintain browser history and proper bookmarking.

To conserve bandwidth, Monocoque’s current design negotiates with its own handler, passing WordPress data back and forth into Monocoque’s sector of the page using JSON instead of a raw HTML block. Monocoque will be able to intelligently decipher external links from internal links so that external links will open properly. Of course, Monocoque is the toughest part of getting Fuselage to work properly, but it will also be rather revolutionary (as well as probably taking the whole AJAX thing one step too far, but hey, somebody’s gotta do it.) In this way, Monocoque will allow a Fuselage-based WordPress theme look and act exactly like a Flash application with true degrade-ability and decreased load times.

The war against bandwidth and processing

Of course, all of this functionality definitely seems like it can make Fuselage turn into a total bandwidth and processing hog. I’m doing my best to optimise the application’s JavaScript, PHP and SQL routines as well as making sure that Fuselage will play nicely with WP-Cache to maintain low database query counts. With absolutely everything enabled, Fuselage will probably be a little heavy on bandwidth and processor usage, but, as with any framework, it is not intended for all of its features to be used at once.

That said, I’ll also note that I’m not the best developer on the planet, and I’m probably not even qualified to write something that’s this huge, so if anyone wants to help optimise Fuselage’s routines before any version is released to the public, I’ll gladly take help by those who are more skilled in JavaScript and PHP optimisation. I’ll definitely be working to learn more optimisation routines myself, as both my site and most likely a few others will run on this framework when it’s complete.

Styles Included

Unlike Sandbox, which really only provides a very simple core (which Fuselage does with styles disabled, I’ve already drawn out a basic design for Airframe, the stock Fuselage template, which will work with every Fuselage feature and offer a starting point for those willing to create new Fuselage styles or develop their own code using the Fuselage framework. Airframe should live up to the same aesthetic traditions as my existing themes, and, with Airframe alone, the Fuselage codebase can be a great theme for those that are neither design- nor development-oriented.

Now that I’ve explained all of this that I’m working on for the next version of this site, I’m definitely getting back to working on it. Maybe I’ll have something to show for it even sooner than expected. (Okay, probably not, but I’ll have the beginning to a new, multi-part First Class post sometime next week.)


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